The origins of rock and roll have been fiercely debated by commentators and historians of music. There is general agreement that it began in the Southern United States – a region which would produce most of the major early rock and roll acts – through the meeting of various influences that embodied a merging of the African musical tradition with European instrumentation. The migration of many former slaves and their descendants to major urban centers such as Memphis, New York City, Detroit and Chicago meant that black and white residents were living in close proximity in larger numbers than ever before, and as a result heard each other's music and even began to emulate each other's fashions.
Radio stations that made white and black forms of music available to both groups, the development and spread of the gramophone record, and African American musical styles such as jazz and swing which were taken up by white musicians, aided this process of "cultural collision".
The immediate roots of rock and roll lay in the rhythm and blues, then called " race music", and country music of 10 the 1940s and 1950s.
Particularly significant influences were jazz, blues, gospel, country, and folk. Commentators differ in their views of which of these forms were most important and the degree to which the new music was a re-branding of African American rhythm and blues for a white market, or a new hybrid of black and white forms.
In the 1930s jazz, and particularly swing, both in urban based dance bands and blues-influenced country swing, was among the first music to present African American sounds for a predominantly white audience.
I * READING COMPREHENSIONCHOOSE THE CORRECT OPTION (A, B, C or D). (0.5 points each)
1. White people started listening to “black” music because...
- a) African slaves started moving to small towns.
- b) large numbers of white people moved to big cities.
- c) black and white populations started to live in the same areas. X
- d) southern music was very fashionable at the time.
- a) The fact that people could listen to music on the radio.
- b) The fact that white people started to play “black” music.
- c) Technological improvements like the gramophone.
- d) African American population listened to the radio at all times. X
ARE THESE STATEMENTS TRUE OR FALSE? JUSTIFY YOUR ANSWERS WITH THE PRECISE WORDS OR PHRASES FROM THE TEXT, OR USE YOUR OWN WORDS. (0.5 points each)
3. Black and white people imitated each other’s styles.
- TRUE: “(as a result they heard each other's music and) even began to emulate each other's fashions” (lines 6-7).
- FALSE: “black and white residents were living in close proximity in larger numbers than ever before”(lines 5-6).
- TRUE “In the 1930s, jazz, and particularly swing, both based on urban dance bands and country blues, were among the first music to present African American sounds for a predominantly white audience” (lines 14-15).
- TRUE. “The immediate roots of rock and roll lay in the rhythm and blues, then called " race music”, and country music” (line 10).
II * USE OF ENGLISH7. FIND IN THE TEXT ONE SYNONYM FOR “adopt” (verb).
“to disagree in opinion, belief, etc.”
“At the interview, they asked me if I was interested ....... politics.”
smart / bright / brilliant / hopeful
“Don’t forget ...... (bring) your lunch”.
“Charles was driving too fast when the accident took place”.
“People think that hard work is the key to success in life”.
“If former slaves hadn't migrated to urban centres,...”
“I'm agree that have children can change your life”.
III * PRODUCTION18. WRITE A COMPOSITION OF APPROXIMATELY 120 WORDS ABOUT THE TOPIC PROPOSED. YOU MUST FOCUS STRICTLY ON IT:
- Describe the role of music in your life and your favourite type of music, if any.